Stage Directions and Drama Terms
In Shakespeare's Plays

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Compiled by Michael J. Cummings..© 2003       Revised in 2006, 2011, 2012
Act: One of the main divisions of a play. Shakespeare's plays each have five acts. Each act is subdivided into scenes. An act generally focuses on one major aspect of the plot or theme. Between acts, stagehands may change scenery, and the setting may shift to another locale.
Antagonist: A Character, situation, feeling, idea, or thing that opposes the main character, or protagonist.

Alarum: Stage direction indicating the coming of a battle; a call to arms.
Arras: Tapestry hung on the stage to conceal scenery until the right moment. In Hamlet, an arras played a crucial role. Polonius hid behind one to eavesdrop on a conversation between Hamlet and his mother, Queen Gertrude. When Hamlet saw the tapestry move, he stabbed at it, thinking King Claudius was behind it, and killed Polonius.
Aside: (1) Words a character speaks to himself only; other characters on the stage cannot hear the words. However, the audience hears everything. (2) Words a character speaks to a nearby character or characters but not to any other characters on the stage. The audience hears everything. 
Balcony: Area above the stage roof used for balcony scenes, such as the one in Romeo and Juliet, or for seating musicians or members of the audience.
Burden: Refrain of a song; recurring theme. Burdens occur in two of Ariel's songs in the second act of The Tempest. 

Catchword: In published Shakespeare plays in earlier times, catchword referred to a single word on the bottom of the right side of a page. This word was the first word appearing on the next page.
Chorus: The chorus was a single person who recited a prologue before Act 1 (and sometimes a passage between acts) in Henry V, Henry VIII, Troilus and Cressida, and Romeo and Juliet. Generally, the chorus informed the audience of action offstage or outside the time frame of the play.
Dialogue: What the characters say to one another; conversation.

Dramatis Personae: List of the characters in a play. Such a list is found at the beginning of each Shakespeare play. 
Enter: Stage direction indicating the entrance onto the stage of a character or characters.
Epilogue: Short address spoken by an actor at the end of a play that comments on the meaning of the events in the play or looks ahead to expected events; an afterword in any literary work.
Excursion: Stage direction indicating that a military attack is taking place. The opening of Scene II in Act III of King John contains such a stage direction. 
Exeunt: Stage direction indicating the departure of two or more characters from the stage.
Exit: Stage direction indicating the departure of a character from the stage.
Fair Copy: Play manuscript after it has been edited.
Flourish: Music usually introducing the entrance or exit of a king or another important person. The music may consist of a short trumpet passage. 
Foul Papers: Original manuscript of a playwright which was later edited.
Gallery: Roofed seating area of a theatre, such as the Globe, that resembled the grandstand of a baseball park. The Globe had three galleries that could accommodate 2,000 to 3,000 playgoers.
Hautboys: Stage direction indicating that entering characters are playing hautboys (OH bwah), which are Elizabethan oboes.
Heavens: Ceiling of the stage roof, which rested on columns. An opening in the ceiling allowed actors to enter a scene on a rope or another device.
Hell: Area beneath the stage floor. Stagehands could create sound effects in this area. In addition, actors beneath the stage could enter a scene through a trap door built into the floor.

Induction: Preface or prelude to a play. The Taming of the Shrew contains an induction that precedes the main plot. 
Master of Revels: Government censor who examined all plays for offensive material.
Monologue: Long speech spoken by a character. He or she may address the monologue to one character or several characters. If the speaker is alone on the stage, he usually delivers his monolgue as if he is talking to himself. In reality, is addressing the audience. Probably the most famous monologue in Shakespeare his Hamlet's "To be or not to be" speech in Hamlet, Prince of Denmark, beginning at 3.1.66.
Passes Over: Direction indicating that a character is walking across the stage while other characters are conversing. Such a direction occurs several times in the second scene of Act I of Troilus and Cressida. Following is the script of part of this scene.
∆NEAS passes over the stage.
PANDARUS  Thatís ∆neas: is not that a brave man? heís one of the flowers of Troy, I can tell you: but mark Troilus; you shall see anon.   
ANTENOR passes over.
CRESSIDA  Whoís that?   
PANDARUS  Thatís Antenor: he has a shrewd wit, I can tell you; and heís a man good enough: heís one oí the soundest judgments in Troy,  whosoever, and a proper man of person. When comes Troilus? Iíll show you Troilus anon: if he see me, you shall see him nod at me.           
CRESSIDA  Will he give you the nod?   
PANDARUS  You shall see.   
CRESSIDA  If he do, the rich shall have more.
HECTOR passes over.
PANDARUS  Thatís Hector, that, that, look you, that; thereís a fellow! Go thy way, Hector! Thereís a brave man, niece. O brave Hector! Look how he looks! thereís a countenance! Is ít not a brave man?          
CRESSIDA  O! a brave man.   
PANDARUS  Is aí not? It does a manís heart good. Look you what hacks are on his helmet! look you yonder, do you see? look you there: thereís no jesting; thereís laying on, take ít off who will, as they say: there be hacks!   
CRESSIDA  Be those with swords?   
PANDARUS  Swords? any thing, he cares not; an the devil come to him, itís all one: by Godís lid, it does oneís heart good. Yonder comes Paris, yonder comes Paris.
Prologue: Introduction of a play. In Henry V, a chorus (one person) speaks a prologue that encourages the audience members to use their imaginations to create what an Elizabethan stage cannot: battlefields, clashing swords, the might of warriors. Shakespeare writes, "Think when we talk of horses, that you see them printing their proud hoofs i' the receiving earth."
Protagonist: Main character.

Promptbook or Prompt Copy: Edited version of a play in which an acting company inserted stage directions.
Re-Enter: Stage direction indicating the re-entrance onto the stage of a character or characters.
Scene: (1) Time and place of the action in a play; (2) part of an act in a play that usually takes place in one location.
Sennet: Trumpet flourish to introduce the entrance of a character, such as King Lear (Act 1).
Soliloquy: Long passage in which a character reveals his thoughts to the audience but not to other characters. Hamlet's famous "To be or not to be" speech is an example.
Solus: Stage direction indicating a character is alone on the stage.
Stage Directions: Information in the script of a play that instructs the director, the actors, and others involved with the production (including musicians and stagehands who generate special effects) on gestures, sound effects, emotional responses of characters, the geographical location of a scene, the moment when a character should enter or leave a scene, the way a character should recite a line, and so on. The stage directions are usually enclosed in brackets.

Stationers' Register: Book in which the English government required printers to register the title of a play before the play was published. The full official name of the Stationers' Register was the Hall Book of the Worshipful Company of Stationers.
Thrust Stage: Stage of a Shakespeare-era theater, so called because it thrust forward into the audience.

Tiring House: Dressing rooms of actors behind a wall at the back of the stage. To tire means to dressóthat is, to attire oneself. Sometimes, the wall of the tiring house could stand as the wall of a fortress under siege.
Trap Door: A hinged wooden flap in the floor of a stage. It could act as an entrance or exit for ghosts and witches. It could also serve as the entrance to a tomb.

Torches: Stage direction indicating that entering characters are carrying lit torches.
Tucket: Stage direction indicating a trumpet flourish.

Within: Stage direction indicating that a person speaking or being spoken to is behind a door or inside a room.